African Archaeology - download pdf or read online
By David W. Phillipson
David Phillipson offers an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via ecu colonization during this revised and multiplied variation of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, crucial and Southern Africa. His e-book demonstrates the relevance of archaeological examine to knowing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural history of humankind.
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Extra resources for African Archaeology
The area around the lower Omo River, north of the lake in southern Ethiopia, was the ﬁrst to be investigated (Howell 1976), followed by intensive research in the Koobi Fora area on the northeast shore (M. G. and R. E. Leakey 1978; Wood 1991; Isaac 1997). The focus of research then shifted to the exceptionally signiﬁcant sites in the western part of the basin (J. M. Harris et al. 1988). At times between 4 and 2 million years ago the area drained to the Indian Ocean, but both before and afterwards it has comprised a closed basin with no outlet except an overﬂow channel to the Nile which functions only when the Lake Turkana waters reach a very high level (Butzer 1980; Harvey and Grove 1982).
1993). Further instances will be cited below when major evolutionary developments occurred under relatively arid conditions. 5 million years ago that a rather more comprehensive picture becomes available (Fig. 8). Virtually all the important fossils which illustrate this process have been recovered from sites in eastern Africa and, subsequently, from southern Africa also. It is now convenient to describe the different types of hominid that have been recognised in this crucial time-span, and the theories that have been put forward concerning their The emergence of humankind in Africa 25 Fig.
6 million years ago, a more advanced hominid is attested in the fossil record by a partial male skeleton from Nariokotome which may conﬁdently be attributed to H. ergaster (A. C. Walker and Leakey 1993). This juvenile individual, further discussed in chapter 3, had an even larger cranial capacity than his predecessors, and presented a striking contrast with P. ) boisei, which may have been his only hominid contemporary. 6 million years ago (Klein 1999, citing H. Roche), when H. ergaster was also present in the area.
African Archaeology by David W. Phillipson