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By Walfried Michaelis
In the early Nineteen Eighties, woodland decline grew to become a question of public and medical situation whilst wooded area stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L. ] Karst. ) confirmed obtrusive harm on a wide geographical scale all through Europe. The factors of the saw signs couldn't be elucidated at the foundation of the country of data at the moment. accordingly, numerous study initiatives have been introduced either in Germany and in another nations so that it will determine the correct pathogenic elements. In 1985, the Federal Ministry for learn and expertise determined to incorporate the positioning "Postturm", woodland district Farchau/Ratzeburg, within the spon sorship of the study on wooded area decline as a domain average for lowlands and a sphere of anthropogenic city effect. The research region is located approximately forty krn east-northeast of town of Hamburg. because spruce timber particularly confirmed critical decline, emphasis used to be laid in this species. The programme began in 1986 and prolonged to 1992, with a few actions con tinuing past this time. operating teams from thirteen associations took half within the total project.
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Additional info for Air Pollution: Dimensions, Trends and Interactions with a Forest Ecosystem
The preferable procedure is pressure digestion of, for instance, the loaded filters with 65% nitric acid in Teflon bombs at 165 DC for 5 Analytical Techniques 35 to 6 h. The solution is then diluted with ultrapure water. Again, an internal standard is used. A total of 25 elements have been determined by TXRF using twin anode excitation (cf. Sect. 3): S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb. A typical example for organic matrices is the analysis of fine roots which are usually obtained with masses ranging from 40 to 160 J,fg.
7. Measurement principle of TXRF. 1 Reference plane; 2 anode of X-ray tube; 3 diaphragm; 4 reflector; 5 sample carrier with sample film; 6 detector 36 Experimental Procedures and tungsten anodes of a fine focus X-ray tube has been state of the art since the middle of the 1980s. The fluorescence radiation is detected by an Si(Li)-detector. 8 shows the interference-free detection limits as obtained by means of mono-element aqueous solutions. The sensitivity is better than 10 pg for more than 60 elements (Prange and Schwenke 1992).
NO NO. NO. NO. 70 Average of 60 to 200 single values each. 2 m length. 0 (Test gas) NO. 1. Effect of a Teflon-coated pipe with 80 mm i. diam. 1 m heating test gas or natural air Fig. 5. Schematic setup for the tests of the air sampling system case of 0 3 and CO2 as well as partially of NOx, the measurements could be performed with natural ambient air, partly under different solar irradiation conditions. Otherwise the concentration was exactly adjusted in a dynamic mixing process by the addition of definite flows of test gases with analysis certificates.
Air Pollution: Dimensions, Trends and Interactions with a Forest Ecosystem by Walfried Michaelis