Download e-book for kindle: Algorithms and parallel computing by Fayez Gebali
By Fayez Gebali
There's a software program hole among the power and the functionality that may be attained utilizing todays software program parallel application improvement instruments. The instruments want handbook intervention via the programmer to parallelize the code. Programming a parallel computing device calls for heavily learning the objective set of rules or program, extra so than within the conventional sequential programming now we have all realized. The programmer needs to be conscious of the verbal exchange and knowledge dependencies of the set of rules or program. This ebook offers the suggestions to discover the potential how one can software a parallel machine for a given program.
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Additional info for Algorithms and parallel computing
Memory wall. The speed of data transfer to and from the memory is much slower than processing speed. 1. 3 Estimating Speedup Factor and Communication Overhead Let us assume we have a parallel algorithm consisting of N independent tasks that can be executed either on a single processor or on N processors. 1 Delays Involved in Evaluating an Algorithm on a Parallel Processor System Operation Symbol Comment Memory read Memory write Communicate Tr (N) Tw (N) Tc (N) Process data Tp (N) Read data from memory shared by N processors Write data from memory shared by N processors Communication delay between a pair of processors when there are N processors in the system Delay to process the algorithm using N parallel processors interprocessor communication due to the task independence.
34 Chapter 2 Enhancing Uniprocessor Performance to it by the shown lines. Data migrate to the processor from the bottom of the hierarchy. Likewise, data from the processor migrates downwards down the hierarchy. The thickness of each line symbolizes the speed of communication of the line. For example, the processor can directly communicate with its registers and the cache at high speed, matching the clock speed of the processor. Both of these memory components are very fast since they are always implemented on the same chip as the CPU.
However, their speed does not match the processor speed since they are off-chip memory. We are already seeing advances in flash memory, which possesses most of the desirable features of a memory. It is nonvolatile and fast, and its capacity is increasing with advances in technology. 4 Using Memory Hierarchy 35 Block 0 1 Tag 2 Block Line 0 B words 1 2 ... ... 4 Cache and memory organization. (a) Memory organization into blocks for communicating with cache. (b) Cache organization into lines. 1 Cache Memory Operation Communication between the main memory and the cache occurs in chunks of words called blocks.
Algorithms and parallel computing by Fayez Gebali