Andrew Reynolds's Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs PDF
By Andrew Reynolds
Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs is the 1st targeted attention of the ways that Anglo-Saxon society handled social outcasts. starting with the interval following Roman rule and finishing within the century following the Norman Conquest, it surveys a interval of basic social switch, which integrated the conversion to Christianity, the emergence of the past due Saxon country, and the advance of the panorama of the Domesday booklet. whereas a magnificent physique of written facts for the interval survives within the type of charters and law-codes, archaeology is uniquely positioned to enquire the earliest interval of post-Roman society, the 5th to 7th centuries, for which files are missing. For later centuries, archaeological facts promises us with an self sustaining overview of the realities of capital punishment and the prestige of outcasts. Andrew Reynolds argues that outcast burials exhibit a transparent trend of improvement during this interval. within the pre-Christian centuries, 'deviant' burial is still are discovered simply in neighborhood cemeteries, however the development of kingship and the consolidation of territories throughout the 7th century witnessed the emergence of capital punishment and locations of execution within the English panorama. in the neighborhood decided rites, akin to crossroads burial, now existed along extra formal execution cemeteries. Gallows have been situated on significant barriers, frequently subsequent to highways, regularly in hugely obvious locations. The findings of this pioneering nationwide learn therefore have very important effects on our realizing of Anglo-Saxon society. total, Reynolds concludes, prepared judicial habit was once a characteristic of the earliest Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, instead of simply the 2 centuries sooner than the Norman Conquest.
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Extra resources for Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs
Foremost amongst the disputed material is Beowulf, with some arguing that the poem dates to the eighth century (and contains material as early as the sixth century), whilst others propose a date as late as the eleventh century (Newton 1993, 17; Kiernan 1981, and 1996, 18–23; Chase 1997). A recent summary suggests that an eighth-to-tenth century date-range is most appropriate on balance of the various approaches to dating the poem, while Michael Lapidge has re-stated the case for an eighth-century date on the basis of palaeographical errors in the surviving MS (Bjork and Obermeier 1998, 18; Lapidge 2000).
The earliest authentic charters date from the later seventh century, and the majority, especially up to the ninth century, record grants of land from the king to the church, but by the Late Anglo-Saxon period they increasingly comprised grants to laymen (Wormald 1982, 95). When the transference or conﬁrmation of a grant of land was the subject of a charter, a topographical description of the boundary of the estate in question was commonly attached to the main body of the document. The distribution of surviving charters with bounds shows the majority of examples lying in the southern and western counties, slowly petering out to the north and east (Hill 1981, 24, ﬁg.
This situation almost certainly reﬂects the close association of minster churches with royal manors (Sawyer 1983, 277–8). John Blair has identiﬁed early twelfth-century claims to the right to perform ordeal at a few otherwise unexceptional manorial churches, including Westﬁeld (Sussex), and Feering and Ockendon (Essex), but such a situation is unlikely ever to have been common (Blair 2005, 448). Evidence for ordeal at minsters, however, is hardly extensive. At Northampton, Sources, approaches, and contexts 23 judicial ordeals were carried out at St Peter’s minster and at Canterbury at St John the Baptist, as described by the twelfth-century monk Eadmer (Blair 1988, 48; Brooks 1984, 40).
Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs by Andrew Reynolds